Alloy gate valves
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Alloy 20 gate valve Monel gate valve Hastelloy gate valve

Inconel gate valve Incoloy gate valve Titanium gate valve
6

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
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Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
8

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6mo

Pitting Corrosion
Different testing methods can be used to establish the pitting resistance of steels in
chloride-containing solutions. The data above were measured by an electrochemical
technique based on ASTM G 61. The critical pitting temperatures (CPT) of several highperformance
steels in a 1M sodium chloride solution were determined. The results
illustrate the excellent resistance of SAF 2507 to pitting corrosion. The normal data
spread for each grade is indicated by the dark gray portion of the bar.
Crevice Corrosion
The presence of crevices, almost unavoidable in practical constructions and operations,
makes stainless steels more susceptible to corrosion in chloride environments. SAF 2507
is highly resistant to crevice corrosion. The critical crevice corrosion temperatures of
SAF 2507 and several other high-performance stainless steels are shown above.
Mechanical and Physical Properties
SAF 2507 combines high tensile and impact strength with a low coefficient of thermal
expansion and high thermal conductivity. These properties are suitable for many
structural and mechanical components. The low, ambient, and elevated temperature
mechanical properties of SAF 2507 sheet and plate are shown below. All of the test data
shown are for samples in the annealed and quenched condition.
SAF 2507 is not recommended for applications which require long exposures to
temperatures in excess of 570°F because of the increased risk of a reduction in
toughness. The data listed here are typical for wrought products and should not be
regarded as a maximum or minimum value unless specifically stated.
Hot forming
SAF 2507 should be hot worked between 1875°F and 2250°F. This should be followed
by a solution anneal at 1925°F minimum and a rapid air or water quench.
Cold Forming
Most of the common stainless steel forming methods can be used for cold working SAF
2507. The alloy has a higher yield strength and lower ductility than the austenitic steels so
fabricators may find that higher forming forces, increased radius of bending, and
increased allowance for springback are necessary. Deep drawing, stretch forming, and
similar processes are more difficult to perform on SAF 2507 than on an austenitic
stainless steel. When forming requires more than 10% cold deformation, a solution
anneal and quench are recommended.
Heat Treatment
SAF 2507 should be solution annealed and quenched after either hot or cold forming.
Solution annealing should be done at a minimum of 1925°F. Annealing should be
followed immediately by a rapid air or water quench. To obtain maximum corrosion
resistance, heat treated products should be pickled and rinsed.
40

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
Welding
SAF 2507 possesses good weldability and can be joined to itself or other materials by
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), plasma arc
welding (PAW), flux cored wire (FCW), or submerged arc welding (SAW). 2507/P100
filler metal is suggested when welding SAF 2507 because it will produce the appropriate
duplex weld structure.
Preheating of SAF 2507 is not necessary except to prevent condensation on cold metal.
The interpass weld temperature should not exceed 300°F or the weld integrity can be
adversely affected. The root should be shielded with argon or 90% N2/10% H2 purging
gas for maximum corrosion resistance. The latter provides better corrosion resistance.
If welding is to be done on only one surface and post-weld cleaning is not possible,
GTAW is suggested for root passes. GTAW or PAW should not be done without a filler
metal unless post-weld cleanup is possible. A heat input of 5-38 kJ/in. should be used
for SMAW or GTAW. A heat input of about 50kJ/in. can be used for SAW.
Comparative Standards:
EN/DIN • 1.4501
• X2CrNiMoCuWN25.7.4
AFNOR • Z3CND25.06Az
UNS • S32760
AISI • F55 (A182 / A276 / A479)
GOST • 12Kh13
BRANDS® • ZERON100
NORSOK • M630 MDS D57 BAR
• M630 MDS D54 FORGINGS
• M630 MDS D55 PLATE
• M630 MDS D56 CASTINGS
• M650 Qualification of Manufacturer
OTHER • NACE MR01-75
• ISO 15156
• EN 10088-3
• PED 97/23/EC
• ASTM G48 Method A
• ASTM A751 COMPOSITION
• ASTM A388 U/T
• API 6A – PSL 4
Similar to UNS S32550 / S32520 / FERRALIUM 255-SD50 /UNS S32750 / AISI-F53 /
1.4410 / Z3CNDU25.07Az / X2CrNiMoCuN25.6.3/ 1.4507/ Uranus 52N / SAF 25.07
SANMAC

41

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
■ Alloy 20 gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves ■
Alloy 20 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum stainless steel alloy developed for applications
involving sulphuric acid. Its corrosion resistance also finds other uses in the chemical,
food, pharmaceutical, and plastics industries. Alloy 20 resists pitting and chloride ion
corrosion and its copper content protects it from sulphuric acid. It is also known as
Carpenter 20. Cast versions are designated CN7M.
Composition
• Nickel, 32.5-35%
• Chromium, 19-21%
• Carbon, 0.06% maximum
• Copper, 3-4%
• Molybdenum, 2-3%
• Manganese, 2% maximum
• Silicon, 1% maximum
• Columbium, 1% maximum
• Iron, 31-44% (balance)
Other Names
• UNS N08020
• DIN 2.4660
• CN7M
• Carpenter 20 CB 3TM
• AL 20TM
• Carlson Alloy C20TM
• Nickelvac 23TM
• Nicrofer 3620 NbTM
Specifications
ASTM B729, B464, B366, B473, B462
ASME SB729, SB464, SB366, SB473, SB462
ANSI / ASTM A555-79
42

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
■ Monel gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves ■
Monel is a trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a series of nickel alloys, primarily
composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with some iron and other trace elements.
Monel alloy 400 is binary alloy of the same proportions of nickel and copper as is found
naturally in the nickel ore from the Sudbury (Ontario) mines.
Compared to steel, Monel is very difficult to machine as it work-hardens instantly with heat
and does not harden into a constant matrix. It needs to be turned and worked at slow
speeds and low feed rates. It is resistant to corrosion and acids, and some alloys can
withstand a fire in pure oxygen. It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive
conditions. Small additions of aluminium and titanium form an alloy (K-500) with the same
corrosion resistance but with much greater strength due to gamma prime formation on
aging. Monel’s corrosion resistance makes it ideal for marine applications.
Alloys
Trade Name ASME P Group ASTM/AISI Steel type UNS
Monel 400 B127 / B164 N04400
Monel 401 N04401
Monel 404 B 164 N04404
Monel K-500 B 865 N05500
Monel R-405 N04405
43

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
■ Hastelloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves ■
Hastelloy is the registered trademark name of Haynes International, Inc. The trademark is
applied as the prefix name of a range of twenty two different highly corrosion-resistant
metal alloys loosely grouped by the metallurgical industry under the material term
“superalloys” or “high-performance alloys”.
The predominant alloying ingredient is typically the transition metal nickel. Other alloying
ingredients are added to nickel in each of the subcategories of this trademark designation
and include varying percentages of the elements molybdenum, chromium, cobalt, iron,
copper, manganese, titanium, zirconium, aluminum, carbon, and tungsten.
The primary function of the Hastelloy super alloys is that of effective survival under hightemperature,
high-stress service in a moderately to severely corrosive, and/or erosion
prone environment where more common and less expensive iron-based alloys would fail,
including the pressure vessels of some nuclear reactors, chemical reactors, and pipes and
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The most common Hastelloy alloys are Hastelloy B, Hastelloy B2, Hastelloy B3, Hastelloy
C, Hastelloy C22 and Hastelloy C276.
Composition of various hastelloy alloys
Alloy Co Cr Mo W Fe Si Mn C Ni Others
B-2 1* 1* 28 – 2* 0.1* 1* 0.01* Balance –
B-3 3* 1.5 28.5 3* 1.5 0.1* 3* 0.01* 65 min. Al-0.5*, Ti-0.2*
C-4 2* 16 16 – 3* 0.08* 1* 0.01* Balance Ti-0.7*
C-2000 2* 23 16 – 3* 0.08* – 0.01* Balance Cu-1.6
C-22 2.5* 22 13 3 3 0.08* 0.5* 0.01* Balance V-0.35*
C-276 2.5* 16 16 4 5 0.08* 1* 0.01* Balance V-0.35*
G-30 2* 30 5.5 2.5 15 1* 1.5* 0.03* Balance Nb-0.8*, Cu-2*
N 0.2* 7 16 0.5* 5* 1* 0.8* 0.08* Balance Al+Ti-0.5*, Cu-0.35*
W 2.5* 5 24 – 6 1* 1* 0.12* Balance V-0.6*
• 1
The undiluted deposited chemical composition of covered electrodes of some of
these alloys may vary beyond the limits shown.
44

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
■ Inconel gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves ■
Inconel is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of
austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys. Inconel alloys are typically used in high
temperature applications. It is often referred to in English as “Inco” (or occasionally
“Iconel”). Common trade names for Inconel include: Inconel 625, Chronin 625, Altemp
625, Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625 and Nicrofer 6020.
Composition
Different Inconels have widely varying compositions, but all are predominantly nickel, with
chromium as the second element.
Element (% by mass) Inc
one
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cke
l
Chro
mium
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10.0
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45

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
Properties
Inconel alloys are oxidation and corrosion resistant materials well suited for service in
extreme environments. When heated, Inconel forms a thick, stable, passivating oxide layer
protecting the surface from further attack. Inconel retains strength over a wide temperature
range, attractive for high temperature applications where aluminum and steel would
succumb to creep as a result of thermally-induced crystal vacancies (see Arrhenius
equation). Inconel’s high temperature strength is developed by solid solution strengthening
or precipitation strengthening, depending on the alloy. In age hardening or precipitation
strengthening varieties, small amounts of niobium combine with nickel to form the
intermetallic compound Ni3Nb or gamma prime (γ’). Gamma prime forms small cubic
crystals that inhibit slip and creep effectively at elevated temperatures.
Machining
Inconel is a difficult metal to shape and machine using traditional techniques due to rapid
work hardening. After the first machining pass, work hardening tends to elastically deform
either the workpiece or the tool on subsequent passes. For this reason, age-hardened
Inconels such as 718 are machined using an aggressive but slow cut with a hard tool,
minimizing the number of passes required. Alternatively, the majority of the machining can
be performed with the workpiece in a solutionised form, with only the final steps being
performed after age-hardening. External threads are machined using a lathe to “single
point” the threads, or by rolling the threads using a screw machine. Holes with internal
threads are made by welding or brazing threaded inserts made of stainless steel. Cutting of
plate is often done with a waterjet cutter. Internal threads can also be cut by single point
method on lathe, or by threadmilling on a machining center. New whisker reinforced
ceramic cutters are also used to machine nickel alloys. They remove material at a rate
typically 8 times faster than carbide cutters.
Joining
Welding inconel alloys is difficult due to cracking and microstructural segregation of
alloying elements in the heat affected zone. However, several alloys have been designed to
overcome these problems. The most common way to weld inconel is by using a TIG
welder with the appropriate filler metal.
Inconel alloyshttp://www.magnetsforless.net

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• Inconel 600: Solid solution strengthened
• Inconel 625: Acid resistant, good weldability
• Inconel 690: Low cobalt content for nuclear applications
• Inconel 718: Gamma double prime strengthened with good weldability
• Inconel 751: Increased aluminum content for improved rupture strength in the
1600 F range
• Inconel 939: Gamma prime strengthened with good weldability
46

Grupo Compás – The Alloy Valve Stockist
Alloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves in duplex, 6moly SMO
super duplex, alloy 20, monel, hastelloy, inconel, incoloy and titanium.
Barcelona, Spain. Phone: +34 93 435 1672. Fax: +34 93 550 4076
Email: alloy-valves@alloy-valves.com Web: www.alloy-valves.com
■ Incoloy gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves ■
Background
Incoloy alloy 825 is a nickel iron chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum, copper
and titanium, with exceptional resistance to many aggressive corrosion environments.
Incoloy 825 is highly resistant to corrosion. It has a high nickel content, sufficient to resist
chloride ion stress corrosion cracking, and a very stable austenite structure. The levels of
molybdenum and copper enable the alloy to resist reducing agents and acids. Chromium
gives resistance to oxidising conditions, such as nitric acid solutions, nitrates and oxidising
salts. The alloy is titanium stabilised to resist pitting and intergranular attack after
fabrication, particularly welding, which includes heating in the critical sensitisation
temperature range (650°C – 760°C).
Alloy 825 offers exceptional resistance to corrosion by sulphuric and phosphoric acids and
is often the most cost effective alloy in sulphuric acid service.
Pressure Vessels
Incoloy 825 is approved for pressure vessel operating temperatures up to 525°C (AS1210,
AS4041), 538°C (ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Sections I, III, VIII, IX, Cases
1936, N-188). Brittle phases may form in alloy 825 at temperatures above ~ 540°C, so it is
not normally used at these temperatures, where creep-rupture properties would be design
factors.
Applications of Incoloy 825
Typical Applications of Incoloy Alloy 825 include:
• Sulphuric acid piping and vessels
• Phosphoric acid evaporators
• Pickling tank heaters, pickling tanks and equipment
• Chemical process equipment
• Propellor shafts
• Tank trucks
• Calorifiers
• Electrostatic precipitator electrodes
• Hot vessels for food, water and seawater,
• ammonium sulphate vessels
• Expansion bellows
• Marine exhaust systems
• Power station ash hoppers